The demand for high performance materials with complex functionality is perpetual due to the nature of modern technologies. These materials must also be ideally environmentally benign, inexpensive and easily fabricated to displace current industrial materials or to create new applications that benefit society. Polymers have long been desirable due to their mechanical flexibility and their relatively low fabrication cost. To significantly modify the microstructure and the desired performance of the final polymer, substitution of the constituent monomer used or the addition of a second or even third monomer into the mixture can easily be accomplished. Polymers with functional groups either randomly distributed or as distinct blocks have found application in next-generation separation media, flexible solar cells, biocompatible polymers for biosensors, catalyst supports and nano-reactors to name but a few.